What is SEO and what is the essence of search engine optimization?

October 13, 2020
10 Min Read
Read the article

It is a great achievement to get on the first column of the famous edition. For any business, this is a chance to attract new customers and keep old ones. In the world of the Internet, where the web is woven with millions of pages, it is not so easy to attract attention and earn the trust of customers. But here is its first column – this is the first page of the search engine. 90% of all conversions receive the first 10 links. To get there you need to earn your place under the sun. For these purposes, there is SEO (search engine optimization)

SEO (Search Engine Optimization): what is it and how does it work?

SEO is the process of improving a web resource to improve its position during search engine rankings. Ranking robots work with algorithms.

Ranking – assigning the order in search results, which depends on the quality of the web resource and its content.

The search algorithm is a mathematical formula that explains to the robots the criteria of the site, according to which it is ranked.

Remember that all web resources are created for people. SEO optimization is also for people. When there is a large selection, why not offer the best option. This is what search engines are guided by. Therefore, the criteria for promotion are a requirement of time and user needs. They are constantly being improved and updated.

It all started with the presence of keywords in the text and its titles. When this was not enough, search engines began to introduce new factors to determine the quality of the site, including external links. This is when other sources link to the resource. The increase of various resources in the network has led to greater competition and requirements for them.

Now, to get into the top 10, it must be useful, clear, fast, beautiful and much more. How the algorithms work and how many metrics are taken into account during the ranking is known to no one but the search engine developers themselves. Leading companies are constantly updating the work of search engines. So in May this year, Google announced new factors to consider when ranking, namely Coral Web Vital.

Through trial and error, optimizers have identified several factors that affect the promotion of the site. About it further.

What is included in site optimization?

To understand what SEO is, you need to understand what specific measures professionals take to promote. They are divided into two types: internal and external.

Internal optimization

Conventionally, internal optimization can be divided into improving content, structure, and usability. A separate sub-item should highlight the technical SEО, which is a large and important unit of the SEО-specialist.

• Content

Users come to the site for a specific purpose. Find a recipe for borshch, order winter tires, watch a movie, read a review of a book, etc. The search engine wants you to find what you are looking for, and the information obtained is as relevant as possible (one that matches the user’s query). Therefore, it is important to explain to search engines what content is placed on a particular page and make it relevant to the user.

Texts and requirements to them:

  • Properly assembled semantic core and distributed key phrases. Search engines may not like re-site optimization and the web resource will fall under the filters.
  • Texts must be unique. No one will praise for plagiarism. Uniqueness from 85%, even better 95-100%
  • structure: paragraphs, lists, citations.
  • use of tags and metatags

Tag – a code symbol that indicates the peculiarity of the information placed between the final and initial tag.

A meta tag is a tag used to structure metadata (information that explains certain elements) on a web resource.

Important tags for promotion:

  • h1 – heading
  • h2-h6 – subheadings
  • <ul>, <ol>, <dl> – lists
  • <blockquote> – quotes

Important meta tags:

  • Title – the title of the page that appears in the search results. The information contained in the title indicates the relevance of the user’s request page. Here you need to use the master key. The optimal length is no more than 60 characters without spaces.
  • Description – clarification and generalization of the article or advertising proposal. The text should attract the attention of users and motivate you to go to the site. Be sure to write relevant information, because not matching the sentence to the content of the page can dramatically reduce behavioral factors.

Images and requirements for them:

Images divide the text to better perceive the information. They evoke memories, emotions, associations, which has a good effect on users’ impressions of the text. Therefore, it is worth paying attention to their quality and clarity. Also, note that search engines do not know how to recognize objects from pictures, so they should explain the content of the image by describing it (alt-text) and using the keys.

• Work on the structure

Activities related to the structure of the site are needed for the convenience of visitors and better indexing.

Indexing – search engine information about the resource in the search engine database. This information is taken into account during the ranking.

– Collection of the semantic core. Here you need to determine what information should be on the site and how it is grouped.

– Linking – the presence of links between pages within one resource.

Technical optimization as a subspecies of internal.

Actions to promote the site, during which there are manipulations with the technical characteristics. Most often, such work is carried out in a team of SEO-specialist with a programmer.

The following technical factors are important for site promotion:

  • mobility. Resource adaptation for mobile devices
  • cross-browser. Correct image of pages in all known browsers
  • download speed.
  • correctly written code, tags are located.
  • security

What events are held:

• Indexing settings

– robots.txt – tell machines which files to index and which not

– sitemap.xml – the file contains additional information about the content, clarifications to the pictures, emphasis on important sections.

  • Redirect the site mirror. All web resources open at URL with and without www. Search engines can choose their own domain name to promote. To avoid mistakes, it is better to combine these links.
  • Write meta tags for all pages.
  • Use of tags
  • Reduce the weight of large JS and CSS snippets for fast loading.

These are not all areas for improving the technical characteristics that affect the place of issue, but one of the most important.

External optimization

Create an image for search engines using links. It is also called link building. The logic here is that to increase the credibility of the site in the eyes of the search engine, you need other resources to link to it. The link can be considered as a voice towards a particular resource. However, more links do not mean better. One link from a quality reputable site can give a greater effect than from 5-10 not very high quality. And if you start to be referred to from spam sources or prohibited topics, you can even fall under the sanctions of the search engine.

One of the best methods of link building is to create quality content. As a result, users will start distributing links to you. However, this is not always easy to achieve, so backlinks are often bought.

Where to place the link:

  • social networks
  • registration in catalogs
  • exchange links with other resources
  • posting news on relevant portals.

Methods of site promotion

White SEO

These include official methods of site promotion. Natural gaining popularity due to the improvement of the characteristics of the resource and its content:

  • design improvement
  • work with code
  • use of unique content
  • correct hypertext markup
  • providing a user-friendly interface
  • natural increase in the mass of backlinks

Gray promotion

Methods are not prohibited, but not allowed. There is a fine line between helping a site get to the top, or getting blacklisted. We will write more about the various methods of promotion in another article.

Black optimization methods

Methods outside the law. The strategy is to deceive search engines and create an image of a quality site.

  • hidden text on pages
  • cloaking (the search engine is given a page with keywords, the visitor – a page with good content)
  • use of doorways (resources specially created for search engines)

When is the best time to do SEO?

In the beginning, even at the design stage. Parameters such as page loading speed, correct display of content in different browsers and devices, the structure of all components and the validity of the web resource, largely depend on the work of the programmer. An SEO specialist knows well what it takes to bring a site to high positions, a programmer – how to implement it with code. The joint work of these specialists is the best prevention of low resource rating. It is better to start with a clear idea of ​​where you are going.

The optimizer conducts a technical audit and gives instructions to the programmer on what to pay attention to. No matter how cool and useful the site is if it is not seen by users. One head is good and two are even better. At this stage, a solid foundation for the future project is being built.

SEO and contextual advertising – what’s the difference?

SEO provides organic traffic. People who come to the resource through search are looking for specific information or a trade offer, so they are the most loyal visitors. They need you. The website in the first place evokes trust and respect, so users are ready to leave their time and money here.


  • improving reputation and brand building
  • stable channel for attracting new customers
  • requires relatively low costs with long-term benefits
  • has a positive effect on the work and its content


  • long and complex promotion process

Contextual advertising. For those who need a quick result, this is the best option. Such advertising is shown on key queries and is paid for each click. Its cost depends on the number of search phrases, quality, the geography of ad coverage.


  • fast result
  • the ability to adjust efficiency and measure results


  • short-term effect
  • No need to improve the quality of the site, which affects the behavioral characteristics
  • is not trustworthy, as contextual advertising can be paid for by a dubious online resource.

Proper SEO is the key to the effectiveness of your online business. For a website to be a source of revenue, it must be “recognized” by search engines and, above all, by users. For “beautiful eyes” no one will give such an opportunity, so you need a comprehensive work on all parts of the site. Since SEO promotion applies to different aspects of the resource, it is best to do it in a team with other professionals who create the site.